AFRICA

Africa is the second largest and second largest continent in the world …… .. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited It is assumed that the human species originates from this continent.Africa is separated from Europe through the Mediterranean Sea, is naturally connected to Asia, but at present the border between the two continents is the Suez Canal. To the east the coast is washed by the Indian Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The northernmost point of the continent is Cape Ras al-Abiyad in Tunisia - 37 ° 21 ′ N, the southernmost point is Cape Iglen, the Cape in the Republic of South Africa is 34 ° 51′15 ″ S, the westernmost is the point of the continent is cape Almadi in Senegal, and on the Cape Verde Islands west. is 17 ° 33′22 ″. The easternmost point is Ras Hafun Cape in Somalia - 89 ° 31′66. E. The continental coastline is slightly indented and is 26,000 km long. Most of the continent is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. There are 63 political territories on the continent, of which 54 are independent countries. The largest is Algeria - 10th in the world, followed by Sudan - 16th in the world. The smallest country is the Seychelles, and on the mainland itself - The Gambia. The continent is generally divided into four major geographical regions: Today, Africa contains 54 sovereign countries, most of which have borders drawn during the era of European colonialism. Since colonialism, African countries have often been hampered by instability, corruption, violence and authoritarianism. Most African countries are republics that operate in some form of presidential system of government. However, few manage to maintain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many instead go through a series of coup dictatorships. Africa's climate ranges from the tropical subarctic to its highest peaks. Its northern half is predominantly desert, while its central and southern regions contain both savannah plains and dense rainforest jungles. There is convergence between them, dominated by plant models such as steppes. Africa is the hottest continent on Earth and 60% of the entire land surface is composed of dry areas and deserts. The record for the highest recorded temperature in Libya in 1922 (58 ° C (136 ° F)). boasts with perhaps the largest combination of population density and "freedom" of populations and diversity of wildlife. On large carnivorous animals (such as lions, hyenas, cheetahs, gourds, buffaloes, elephants, camels and giraffes, varying freely from the main open In the jungle there are a large variety of snakes, primas Africa has more than 3,000 protected areas, with 198 marine protected areas, 50 biosphere reserves and 80 wetlands reserves. Significant habitat destruction, increases human population. Poaching decreases biodiversity. Africa Human encroachment, civil unrest and introduction of non-native species threaten Africa's biodiversity, exacerbated by administrative, understaffing and funding problems. and there are four climatic zones: equatorial, subequatorial, tropical and subtropical. This characteristic feature of the geographical location is the reason for the lack of large temperature amplitudes in different parts of the continent. However, differences in relief and air currents are a prerequisite for the formation of equatorial forests, savannas, semi-deserts, and deserts simultaneously. The continent's hottest spots are in North Africa, where the world's largest desert is the Sahara. The thinness of the air and the high levels of solar radiation in the central parts of the desert cause the daytime temperatures to be very high and at night they fall to near-zero values. Further south, oceanic influence contributes somewhat to climate regulation and the formation of the largest semi-desert region in the world - the Sahel. In the extreme southern and northern parts of the continent, the climate is temperate. However, it should be noted that the northernmost northern countries are hotter and drier than the southernmost, as the latter are favorably influenced by the Indian and Atlantic oceans. In the high mountains there is a mountain climate. The highest mountains are part of the chionosphere. Rainfall amounts are directly dependent on the position of the sun relative to the surface and the relief. In the tropical regions, precipitation is most abundant when sunlight falls perpendicularly to Earth or shortly thereafter. The heaviest rainfall is over the tropical forests along the equator and upstream of the Nile, but the amount of rain does not reach that of the wettest places on the planet. Rainfall over the Sahara and the Kalahari is most scarce. In some parts of Africa, coffee is produced due to the favorable climate.Below you can read about the larger countries producing coffee in Africa


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